URC - Research and Development


The Research & Development Group conducts ongoing investigations in the areas of: Regenerative Life Support, Analytical Instrumentation, Air & Water Purification, Environmental Remediation, Solid Waste Treatment, In-Situ Resource Utilization, Disinfection & Sterilization, Materials Science, Chemical Reaction Engineering, and Microwave Power Applications. Current R&D projects include: hydrogen recovery from methane (natural gas), water sterilization and pyrogen removal to produce medical grade water, hydrogen peroxide synthesis using microscale reactor technology, and preparation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for use in ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) immunosensing. Previous research has focused on development of biocatalytic reactors using immobilized enzymes for the destruction and removal of alcohols and urea from water, investigation of thermally regenerable sorption beds and catalytically active regenerable sorbents for airborne trace contaminant control, demonstration of regenerable microbial check valve technology, development of electrolytic/electrodialytic methods and equipment for water purification, optimization of low temperature aqueous phase catalysts and reactor technology for the destruction of organic contaminants in air and water, identification of microgravity and hypogravity compatible methods for solid waste gasification using novel magnetically assisted fluidization & filtration methods, development of microwave power based methods for water recovery from and disinfection of solid wastes, and fluidized bed reactor technology for the recovery of hydrogen from methane. In future work, the R&D group will focus on: multiphase transport in porous media, lunar dust mitigation & sensing technology, methods for oxygen generation from lunar regolith and the martian atmosphere, and water recovery from brines produced by various life support systems. The R & D Group is funded by research contracts and grants from a variety of agencies, including: the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Additional information is available in the areas of:

Publications and Presentations

1990 - Present


2008

Atwater, J.E., and Akse, J.R., Cobalt - Poly(amido amine) Superparamagnetic Nanocomposites, Mater. Lett. 62, 3131-3134, 2008.

Atwater, J.E., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Hadley, N.M., Dahl, R.W., and Carrasquillo, R.L., Hydrogen Recovery by Methane Decomposition in a Microwave Plasma Reactor, SAE Paper No. 2008-01-2099, presented 38th International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, June 29-July 2, 2008.

Williams, T.W., Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., and Fisher, J.W., Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Byproducts from Primary Solid Waste Treatment Technologies, SAE Paper No. 2008-01-2053, presented 38th International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, June 29-July 2, 2008.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Holtsnider,J.T, and Dahl, R.W., Development and Testing of a Fluidized Bed Methane Pyrolysis Reactor for Hydrogen Recovery from Sabatier Products, Final Report, NASA Contract NNM06AA06C, March 2008.

Akse, J.R., Williams, T.W., and Atwater, J.E., Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Byproducts from Primary Solid Waste Treatment Systems, Final Report, NASA Contract NNA06CA53C, January 2008.

Akse, J.R., Holtsnider, J.T., and Williams, T.W., Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Final Report, NASA Contract NNX08CC32P, July, 2008.


2007

Atwater, J.E., and Akse, J.R., Oxygen Permeation through Functionalized Hydrophobic Tubular Ceramic Membranes, J. Membr. Sci. 301, 76-84, 2007.

Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Hadley, N.M., Dahl, R.W., Williams, T.W., Zavala, D.B., Jr., Akse, J.R. and Fisher, J.W., Microwave Enhanced Freeze Drying of Solid Waste, SAE Paper No. 2007-01-3266, presented 37th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Chicago, July 2007.

Akse, J.R., Zavala, D., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Dahl, R.W., Williams, T.W., and Griffin, D.W., Microwave Powered Gravitationally Independent Medical Grade Water Generation, SAE Paper No. 2007-01-3176, presented 37th International Conference on Environmental Systems, July 2007.


2006

Atwater, J.E., and Akse, J.R., Amplification of the Potentiometric Response to Inorganic Carbon by Membrane Mediated Absorption into Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions: an Equilibrium Model, Sens. Actuators B, 115 (1), 330-337, 2006.

Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Hadley, N.M., Dahl, R.W., Williams, T.W., Garmon, F.C., Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., and Fisher, J.W., Development and Testing of a Microwave Powered Solid Waste Stabilization and Water Recovery System, SAE Trans. J. Aerosp. 115, 431-447, 2006..

Williams, T.W., Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., and Fisher, J.W., Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Byproducts from Primary Solid Waste Treatment Technologies, SAE Paper No. 2006-01-2128, presented 36th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Norfolk, VA, July 17-20, 2006.

Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Dahl, R.W., Hadley, N.M., Williams, T.W., Garmon, F.C., and Atwater, J.E., Microwave Powered Solid Waste Stabilization and Water Recovery, Final Report, NASA Contract NNA04CA12C, January 2006.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Dahl, R., Hadley, N., and Williams, T.W., Jovanovic, G.N., Reed, B.P., and Sornchamni, T., Advancec Magnetic Methods for the Separation and Gasification of Solid Wastes in Microgravity and Hypogravity, Final Report, NASA Grant NAG9-1472, May 2006.

Akse, J.R., Zavala, D.B., Dahl, R.W., Williams, T.W., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Microwave Powered Gravitationally Independent Medical Grade Water Generation, Final Report NASA Contract NNC06CA77C, July 2006.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Dahl, R.W., Zavala, D.B., Jr., Hanken, B.E., Holtsnider, J.T., Williams, T.W., and Nanci, J.C., Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane, Final Report, NASA Contract NNM06AA45C, July 2006.

Holtsnider, J.T., and Atwater, J.E., Microgravity Compatible Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients, Final Report, NASA Contract NNM06AA47C, July 2006.

Akse, J.R., and Holtsnider, J.T., Mesoporous Catalysts for Ambient Temperature Aqueous Phase Oxidation, Final Report, NASA Contract NNM04AA25C, January 2006.


2005

Akse, J.R., and Atwater, J.E., Deep Oxidation of Aqueous Organics over a Silicon Carbide - Activated Carbon Supported Platinum - Ruthenium Bimetallic Catalyst, Topics Catal., 33, 51-57, 2005.

Sornchamni, T., Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., and Jovanovic, G.N., Magnetically Assisted Filtration for Solid Waste Separation and Concentration in Microgravity and Hypogravity, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44 (24), 9199-9207, 2005.

Jovanovic, G.N., Sornchamni, T., Reed, B.P., Cruz-Fierro, C., Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Magnetically Assisted Filtration of Solid Wastes: Laboratory and Flight Experiments, SAE Paper No. 2005-01-3082, presented 35th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, July 11-14, 2005.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Dahl, R.W., Hadley, N.M., Jovanovic, G.N., and Fisher, J.W., Magnetically Assisted Gasification of Solid Wastes: Comparison of Reaction Strategies, SAE Paper No. 2005-01-3081, presented 35th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Rome, July 11-14, 2005.

Akse, J.R., Williams, T.W., Dahl, R., and Atwater, J.E., Methane Pyrolysis for Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotube Recovery from Sabatier Products, Final Report, NASA Contract NNM05AA28C, July 2005.

Akse, J.R., Williams, T.W., and Atwater, J.E., Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Byproducts from Heat Melt Waste Compaction, Final Report, NASA Contract NNA05CQ90C, July 2005.

Akse, J.R., and Lee, M.T., Thermally Regenerable Ion-Exchange Resins for Salt Removal from Wastewater Streams, Final Report, NASA Contract NNJ05JB82C, July 2005.


2004

Atwater, J.E., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Microwave Permittivity and Dielectric Relaxation of a High Surface Area Activated Carbon, Appl. Phys. A, 79, 125-129, 2004.
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Atwater, J.E., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Temperature Dependent Complex Permittivities of Graphitized Carbon Blacks at Microwave Frequencies Between 0.2 and 26 GHz, J. Mater. Sci., 39 (1), 151-157, 2004.
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Jovanovic, G.N., Sornchamni, T., Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Magnetically Assisted Liquid-Solid Fluidization in Normal and Microgravity Conditions: Experiment and Theory, Powder Technol., 148, 80-91, 2004.
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Sornchamni, T., Jovanovic, G.N., Reed, B.P., Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Operation of Magnetically Assisted Fluidized Beds in Microgravity and Variable Gravity: Experiment and Theory, Adv. Space Res., 34, 1494-1498, 2004.
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Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., Williams, T.W., Holtsnider, J.T., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Heterogeneous Catalytic Peroxidation of Environmental Contaminants, Final Report, NSF Grant DMI-0318008, January 2004.

Akse, J.R., Holtsnider, J.T., and Dahl, R., Sub-Micron Particle Removal from Gas Water Mixtures without Flow Restrictions, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS8-02017, February 2004.

Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Atwater, J.E., and Hadley, N.M., Microwave Enhanced Freeze-Drying of Solid Waste, Final Report, NASA Contract NNA04CB24C, July 2004.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Jovanovic, G.N., Pinto-Espinoza, J., Sornchamni, T., and Reed, B., Magnetic Control of Granular Ferromagnetic Media in Microgravity for Advanced Life Support Applications, Habitation 2004, Orlando, FL, January 5-7, 2004. (Abstract).
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Jovanovic, G.N., Reed, B.P., Cruz-Fierro, C., and Atwater, J.E., Influence of Interparticle Forces on Liquid Solid Fluidized Beds: Experiments and Simulations (CFD-DPM), Paper 282b, presented AIChE Annual Meeting, Austin, Texas, November 7-12, 2004.

Akse J.R., Holtsnider, J.T., and Carter, L., Mesoporous Oxide Supported Catalysts for Low Temperature Oxidation of Dissolved Organics in Spacecraft Wastewater Streams, SAE Technical Series Paper 2004-01-2405, presented at the International Conference on Environmental Systems, Colorado Springs, July 19-22, 2004.
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2003

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Jovanovic, G.N., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., and Sornchamni, T., Porous Cobalt Spheres for High Temperature Gradient Magnetically Assisted Fluidized Beds, Mater. Res. Bull., 38, 395-407, 2003.
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Atwater, J.E., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Complex Permittivities and Dielectric Relaxation of Granular Activated Carbons at Microwave Frequencies between 0.2 and 26 GHz, Carbon, 41 (9), 1801-1807, 2003.
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Akse, J.R., and Holtsnider, J.T., Mesoporous Catalysts for Ambient Temperature Aqueous Phase Oxidation, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS8-03019, July, 2003.

Atwater, J.E., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Jovanovic, G.N., and Reed, B., Magnetically Controlled Microwave Powered Fluidized Bed Reactor, Final Report, NSF Grant DMI-0128201, January 2003.

Atwater, J.E., Wheeler R. R., Jr., and Garmon, F.C., Microwave Powered Solid Waste Stabilization and Water Recovery, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS2-03124, July 2003.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Jovanovic, G.N., Pinto-Espinoza, J., Reed, B., and Sornchamni, T., Microgravity and Hypogravity Compatible Methods for the Destruction of Solid Wastes by Magnetically Assisted Gasification, Final Report, NASA Grant NAG9-1181, NTIS N20030066375, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, 2003.

Jovanovic, G.N., Pinto-Espinoza, J., Sornchamni, T., Reed, B., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Atwater, J.E., and Akse, J.R., Development of Enabling Technologies for Magnetically Assisted Gasification of Solid Wastes, SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2374, presented 33rd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Vancouver, BC, July 7-10, 2003.
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Sornchamni, T., Jovanovic, G.N., Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Advanced Magnetically Assisted Stabilized Bed for the Separation of Solid Waste in Microgravity and Hypogravity: Filtration Modeling, Paper No. 53a, presented AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, November 16-21, 2003.
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2002

Atwater, J.E., Complex Dielectric Permittivities of the Ag2O - Ag2CO3 System at Microwave Frequencies and Temperatures between 22*C and 189*C, Appl. Phys. A, 75, 555-558, 2002.
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Akse, J.R. and Dahl, R., Portable Water Purification System Utilizing Ambient Temperature Catalysts, Final Report, NASA Contract No. NAS8-01161, July 2002.

Akse, J.R., Microgravity Compatible Reagentless Instrumentation for Detection of Dissolved Organic Acids and Alcohols in Potable Water, Final Report, NASA Grant NAG9-1081 , April 2002.

Akse, J.R., Holtsnider, J.T., and Kliestik, H., Immobilized Antimicrobials for the Enhanced Control of Microbial Contamination, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS9-00055, April 2002.

Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Holtsnider, J.T., and Luna, B. Development and Testing of a Microwave Powered Regenerable Air Purification Technology Demonstrator, SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2403, presented at 32nd International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Antonio, Texas, July 15-18, 2002.
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Holtsnider, J.T., Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., Shough, N.J., and Carter, D.L. Ambient Temperature Removal of Problematic Organic Compounds from ISS Wastewater, SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2534, presented at 32nd International Conference on Environmental Systems, July 15-18, San Antonio, Texas 2002.
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Sornchamni, T., Jovanovic, G., Atwater, J., Akse, J., and Wheeler, R. The Operation of Magnetically Assisted Fluidized Bed in Microgravity and Variable Gravity: Experiment and Theory, presented at the World Space Congress, October 10-19, Houston, Texas 2002.

Jovanovic, G.N., Sornchamni, T., Atwater, J.E., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Gradient Magnetically Assisted Liquid-Solid Fluidization in Normal and Microgravity Conditions, Paper No. 138g, presented AIChE Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, November 3-8, 2002.

Jovanovic, G.N., Sornchamni, T., Atwater, J.E., and Akse, J.R., Mathematical Modeling of Micron-Size Particle Collection in a Gradient Magnetically Assisted Fluidized Bed, Paper No. 147d, presented AIChE Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, November 3-8, 2002.


2001

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Wang, T.-C., Kimura, S., and Johnson, D.C., Preparation of Silicon Carbide Coated Activated Carbon Using a High Temperature Fluidized Bed Reactor, Chem. Eng. Sci., 56 (8), 2685-2693, 2001.
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Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Jovanovic, G.N., and Sornchamni, T., Preparation of Metallic Cobalt and Cobalt-Barium Titanate Spheres as High Temperature Media for Magnetically Stabilized Fluidized Bed Reactors, J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 20 (6), 487-488, 2001.
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Atwater, J.E., Michalek, W.F., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Dahl, R., Lunsford, T.D., Garmon, F.C., and Sauer, R.L., A Microwave Powered Sterilizable Interface for Aseptic Access to Bioreactors which are Vulnerable to Microbial Contamination, Biotechnol. Prog., 17 (5), 847-851, 2001.
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Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., and Holtsnider, J.T., Development of Microgravity Compatible Reagentless Instrumentation for Detection of Dissolved Organic Acids and Alcohols in Water, Life Support Biosphere Sci., 8 (1), 55 - 63, 2001.
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Atwater, J.E., On-Line Electrocatalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence Determination of D-Glucose and Dissolved Oxygen in Simulated Mammalian Cell Bioreactor Perfusion Fluid using Solid Phase Reagent Modules, Biotechnol. Lett., 23 (8), 621-625, 2001.
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Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., and Holtsnider, J.T., Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Dendrimers for Biomedical Applications, Final Report, NIH Grant 1 R43RR15003-01A1, May 2001.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Otero, K.S., and Shough, N.J., Oxygen Saturation Sub-system for Single-Phase Flow through Biological and Physicochemical Water Processors, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS9-01020, August 2001.

Akse, J.R., and Dahl, R., Sub-Micron Particle Removal from Gas-Water Systems without Flow Restrictions, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS8-01024, August 2001.

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., and Holtsnider, J.T., Microgravity Compatible Reagentless Instrumentation for Detection of Dissolved Organic Acids and Alcohols in Water, presented Bioastronautics Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 17-19, 2001. (Abstract.)

Atwater, J.E., Jovanovic, G.N., Akse, J.R., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Sornchamni, T., and Espinoza, J.P., Methods and Materials for the Control of Granular Media in Microgravity and Hypogravity for Magnetically Assisted Gasification (MAG) and OthAdvanced Life Support Applications, presented Bioastronautics Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 17-19, 2001. (Abstract.)
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2000

Atwater, J.E., DeHart, J.L., and Akse, J.R., A Chemical Amplification System for Conductiometric Monitoring of Airborne CO2 Partial Pressures, Instrum. Sci. Technol., 28 (4), 269-280, 2000.
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Atwater, J.E., Complex Permittivities of Cyclomaltooligosaccharides (Cyclodextrins) over Microwave Frequencies to 26 GHz, Carbohydr. Res., 327 (3), 219-221, 2000.
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Atwater, J.E., Oxidation of Benzene in the Aqueous Phase over a Bimetallic Carbon Supported Catalyst, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett., 71 (2), 319-323, 2000.
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Akse, J.R., Michalek, W.F., Figueroa, C., Wisely, M.T., Wheeler, R.R.,Jr., Garmon, F.C., Dahl, R.W., Kliestik, H., and Atwater, J.E., Microbial Water Quality Monitor (MWQM): Phase II Development and Testing, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS9-98033, April 2000.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Holtsnider, J.T., and Shough, N., Advanced Immobilized Enzyme Bioreactors for Space Station, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS8- 00094, June 2000.

Jovanovic, G.N., Sornchamni, T., Espinosa, J.P., Atwater, J.E., and Akse, J.R., The Study of Magnetically Assisted Fluidization in Microgravity and Variable Gravity: Simulation and Experiment, presented 4th International Life Support and Biosphere Science Conference, Baltimore, August 6 - 9, 2000. [Abstract]
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Akse, J.R., Holtsnider, J. T., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Microgravity Compatible Reagentless Instrumentation for Detection of Dissolved Organic Acids and Alcohols in Potable Water, presented 4th International Life Support and Biosphere Science Conference, Baltimore, August 6 - 9, 2000. [Abstract]


1999

Atwater, J.E., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., A Complex Permittivity Study of Sorbent Materials and Volatile Contaminants, Volume 1, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS2-97017, June 1999.

Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Thompson, J.O., Lunsford, T.D., Holtsnider, J.T., DeHart, J.L., Dahl, R., Akse, J.R., and Atwater, J.E., Development and Testing of the Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Technology Demonstrator, Volume 2, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS2-97017, June 1999.

Figueroa, C., and Akse, J.R., Biomass Slurry Production, Final Report NASA Contract NAS2-99013, June 1999.

Holtsnider, J.T., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., and Akse, J.R., Ultrasonic Bubble Separator, Final Report NASA Contract NAS8-99027, June 1999.

Wisely, M.T., and Akse, J.R., Immobilized Antimicrobials for Enhanced Control of Bacterial Contamination, Final Report NASA Contract NAS9-99008, June 1999.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., DeHart, H.L., Jovanovic, G.N., Sornchamni, T., Yoo, S., and Fisher, J.W., Magnetically Assisted Gasification of Solid Waste, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 1999-01-2183, presented 29th International Converence on Environmental Systems, Denver, July 12-15, 1999.
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Akse, J.R., Wisely, M.T., Atwater, J.E., Colombo, G.V., and Fisher, J.W., On Demand Electrochemical Production of Reagents to Minimize Resupply of Expendables, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 1999-01-2181, presented 29th International Converence on Environmental Systems, Denver, July 12-15, 1999.
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Wiederhoeft, C.J., Schultz, J.R., Michalek, W.F., and Sauer, R.L., Reduction in the Iodine Content of Shuttle Drinking Water: Lessons Learned, SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-2117, SAE, Warrendale, PA, 1999.
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Burchfield, D., McKinley, L., Niu, W., Michalek, W.F., Schultz, J.R., Wiederhoeft, C., and Sauer, R.L. A Spectrophotometric Analyzer for Aqueous Samples in Microgravity, SAE Technical Paper: 1999-01-2032, SAE, Warrendale, PA, 1999.
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Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., DeHart, J., and Holtsnider, J.T., Ultra Low Level Detection of TOC, Final Report, NSF Grant DMI-9860157, August 1999.


1998

Akse, J.R., Thompson, J.O., Sauer, R.L., and Atwater, J.E., 'Reagentless' Flow Injection Determination of Ammonia and Urea using Membrane Separation and Solid Phase Basification, Microchem. J., 59, 372-382, 1998.
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Atwater, J.E., DeHart, J., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Dissolved Oxygen Determination by Electrocatalyzed Chemiluminescence with In-Line Solid Phase Media, J. Biolum. Chemilum., 13, 125-130, 1998.
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Atwater, J.E., and Akse, J.R., Next Generation Physico-Chemical Systems for Water Reclamation Aboard Spacecraft, Lunar and Planetary Habitats, Life Supp. Biosphere Sci., 5 (1), 35-43, 1998.
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Akse, J.R., Dehart, J.L., Ingle, J.D., Cantrell, K., Kim, Y.-S., Firpo, E., and Beaber, L. A Chemiluminescence Chlorine Analyzer, Final Report, NSF Phase II STTR Grant No.: DMI 9626942, November, 1998.

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., and Wisely, M.T., On Demand Electrochemical Production of Reagents to Minimize Resupply of Expendables, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS2-98044, October 1998.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., DeHart, J.L., Jovanovic, G.N., Sornchamni, T., and Yoo, Seung, Microgravity and Hypogravity Compatible Methods for the Destruction of Solid Wastes Using Magnetically Stabilized Fluidized Bed Reactor Technology, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS2-97077, September 1998.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Thompson, J.O., and Wang, T.-S., High Temperature Fluidized Bed Reactor for Producing Silicon Carbide Coated Activated Carbon, Final Report, NSF Grant No: DMI- 9760204, July 1998.

Akse, J.R., Figueroa, C., Wisely, M.T., Lunsford, T.D., and Gill, H., Electrochemically Generated Hydrogen Peroxide Boosted Aqueous Phase Catalytic Oxidation, Final Report NASA Contract NAS2-14317, 1998.

Akse, J.R., Wang, T.-C., Wisely, M.T., Lunsford, T.D., and Rodarte, J., Reactor Technology for Aqueous Phase Catalytic Oxidation of Organics, Phase II SBIR, Final Report U.S. Air Force Contract No. F41624-96-C-0013, 1998.

DeHart, J., Akse, J.R., and Atwater, J.E., CO2 Controller for Plant Growth Chambers, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 981805, presented at 28th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Boston, July 13-16, 1998.
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Figueroa, C., Akse, J.R., Lunsford, T.D., and Fisher, J.W., Biomass Conversion to Pumpable Slurries, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 981758, presented at 28th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Boston, July 13-16, 1998.


1997

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Rodarte, J.M., Thompson, J.O., Wang, T.-C., and Hurley, J.A., Silicon Carbide Coated Granular Activated Carbon: A Robust Support for Low Temperature Aqueous Phase Oxidation Catalysts, Carbon, 35, (10-11), 1678-1679, 1997.
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Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., McKinnis, J.A., and Thompson, J.O., Low Temperature Aqueous Phase Catalytic Oxidation of Phenol, Chemosphere, 34, 203-212, 1997.
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Atwater, J.E., Dahl, R.W., Garmon, F.C., Lunsford, T.D., Michalek, W.F., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., and Sauer, R.L., Miniature Microwave Powered Steam Sterilization Chamber, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 68 (10), 3924-3925, 1997.
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Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., DeHart, J., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., 'Reagentless ' Flow Analysis Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide by Electrocatalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence, Anal. Lett., 30 (1), 21-31, 1997.
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Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., DeHart, J., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Enzymatic Determination of Ethanol using 'Reagentless' Electrocatalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence, Anal. Lett., 30 (8), 1445- 1453, 1997.
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Thompson, J.O., Akse, J.R., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Wiseley, M.T., and Atwater, J.E., Microgravity Compatible Reagentless Instrumentation for Detection of Dissolved Organic Acids in Potable Water, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS9-97095, September 1997.

Figueroa, C., Garmon F., Wisely, M.T., and Atwater, J.E., On-Line Microbial Water Quality Monitor, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS9-97096, September 1997.

DeHart, J.L., Akse, J.R., and Atwater, J.E., Atmospheric CO2 Controller for Plant Growth Chambers, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS9-97094, September 1997.

Figueroa, C., Akse, J.R., and Lunsford, T., Biomass Conversion to High Solids Pumpable Slurries, Final Report, NASA Contract NAS2-97038, August 1997.

Thompson, J.O., Akse, J.R., and Johnson, D.C., Improved Thermoelectric Materials: Skutterudite Superlattices Prepared via Kinetic Trapping from Modulated Reactants, Final Report, U.S. Navy Contract N00014-97-C-0047, June 1997.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., Garmon, F.C., Holtsnider, J.T., and Wisely, M.T., Halogen Binding Polymers for Drinking Water Disinfection, Final Report, NIH Grant No. 1 R43 AI40417- 01, June 1997.

Thompson, J.O., and Akse, J.R., Aqueous Phase Ammonia Removal and Destruction System (APARDS), SAE Technical Paper Series No. 972425, presented at 27th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Lake Tahoe, NV, July 14-17, 1997.

Atwater, J.E., Holtsnider, J.T., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., and Luna, B., Microwave-Powered Thermal Regeneration of Sorbents for CO2, Water Vapor and Trace Organic Contaminants, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 972430, presented at 27th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Lake Tahoe, NV, July 14-17, 1997.
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Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., McKinnis, J.A., Thompson, J.O., and Hurley, J.A., Elimination of Organic Contaminants in Wastewater using Molecular Oxygen and the Aqueous Phase Catalytic Oxidation Process, Seventh International Chemical Oxidation Symposium, Nashville, TN, April 9-11, 1997.
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1996

Schussel, L.J., and Atwater, J.E., A Continuous Alcohol Oxidase Bioreactor for Regenerative Life Support, Enzyme Microb. Technol., 18 (3), 229-235, 1996.
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Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., McKinnis, J.A., and Thompson, J.O., Aqueous Phase Heterogeneous Catalytic Oxidation of Trichloroethylene, Appl. Catal. B., 11 (1), L11-L18, 1996.
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Atwater, J.E., Sauer, R.L., and Schultz, J.R., Numerical Simulation of Iodine Speciation in Relation to Water Disinfection Aboard Manned Spacecraft I. Equilibria, J. Environ. Sci. Health, A31, 1965-1979, 1996.
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Atwater, J.E., and Holtsnider, J.T., Simple Models for the Breakthrough of Humidified Acetone and Ethyl Acetate on a Carbon Based Molecular Sieve, Carbon, 34 (6), 824-825, 1996.

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., Garmon, F., Lunsford, T., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., A Device for the Production of Sterile IV Fluids from Potable Water, Final Report, U.S. Navy Contract N00014-96-C-0269, November 1996.

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., DeHart, J., and Rodarte, J.M., Oceanographic pCO2 Monitor: Prototype Development and Testing, Final Report, DOE Grant DE-FG03- 93ER81641/A000, October 1996.

Atwater, J.E., Holtsnider, J.T., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device, Final Report, NASA Contract No. NAS2-14374, August 1996.

Akse, J.R., DeHart, J., Figueroa, C., and Rodarte, J., Supercritical Water Oxidation Based Dissolved Organic Carbon Analyzer, Final Report, NSF Grant DMI-9560420, August 1996.

Akse, J.R., and Thompson, J.O., Aqueous Phase Ammonia Removal System (APARS), Final Report, NASA Contract NAS2-14353, July 1996.

Atwater, J.E., Dahl, R., Lunsford, T., Michalek, W.F., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Development and Testing of the Microwave Sterilizable Access Port, Final Report NASA Contract NAS9- 19081, April, 1996.

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., and Thompson, J.O., Reactor Technology for Aqueous Phase Catalytic Oxidation of Organics, Final Report, U.S. Air Force Contract F08637-95-C6022, February 1996.

Atwater, J.E., Michalek, W.F., Garmon, F., Lunsford,T., Wheeler,R.R., Jr., and Sauer, R.L., Development of the Microwave Sterilizable Access Port Prototype, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 961567, presented at 26th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Monterey, CA, July 8-11,1996.
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Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., Schussel, L.J., Thompson, J.O., Garmon, F.,Verostko, C.E., and Flynn, M., Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide for Aqueous Phase Catalytic Oxidation, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 961521, presented at 26th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Monterey, CA, July 8-11,1996.
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Glaser, S.J., Ingle, J.D., Jr., and Akse, J.R., Chemiluminescence Determination of Free Chlorine with Flow Injection and Continuous Flow Analysis, presented 51st Northwest Regional ACS Meeting, Corvallis, OR, June 19-22, 1996.


1995

Atwater, J.E., Thermodynamics of the Oxidation of Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Shuttle Orbiter Humidity Condensates, J. Environ. Sci. Health, A30 (4), 817-830, 1995.
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Schussel, L.J., and Atwater, J.E., A Urease Bioreactor for Water Reclamation Aboard Spacecraft, Chemosphere, 30 (5), 985-994, 1995.
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Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., DeHart, J., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Reagentless Chemiluminescence Based Fiber Optic Sensors for Regenerative Life Support in Space, SPIE Proceedings Series, 2574, 78-84, 1995.
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Akse, J.R., and Thompson, J.O., Catalytically Active Regenerable Sorbent Beds (CARS) for Airborne Contaminants, Life Supp. Biosph. Sci., 1, 159-167, 1995.

Akse, J.R., and Thompson, J.O., In-Flight Ammonia Monitor, Final Report NASA Contract NAS9-18903, May 1995.

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., Schussel, L.J., Ingle, J.D., Jr., and Glaser, S., A Reagentless Fiber Optic Chemiluminescence Continuous Flow Chlorine Analyzer, Final Report, NSF Grant DMI 9413565, October 1995.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., McKinnis, J.A., and Thompson, J.O., Aqueous Phase Catalytic Oxidation of Organic Contaminants, Final Report, NSF Grant DMI 9460162, July 1995.

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., Schussel, L.J., and Thompson, J.O., Electrochemically Generated, Hydrogen Peroxide Boosted Aqueous Phase Catalytic Oxidation, Final Report NASA Contract NAS9-19281, July 1995.

Atwater, J.E., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., and DeHart, J., Glucose and O2 Sensors for Mammalian Cell Bioreactor Control, Final Report NASA Contract NAS9-19305, July 1995.

Colombo, G.V., and Putnam, D.F., Manned Chamber Testing of Water Recovery Systems, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 951489, presented at 25th International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Diego, July 10-13, 1995.

Akse, J.R., Thompson, J.O., Sauer, R.L., Aten, L., Advanced Development of the In-Flight Ammonia Monitor Prototype, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 951687, presented at 25th International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Diego, July 10-13, 1995.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., DeHart, J., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., and Verostko, C.E., Chemiluminescent Ethanol Biosensor Development, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 951686, presented at 25th International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Diego, July 10-13, 1995.
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Straub, J.E., Schultz, J.R., Michalek, W.F., and Sauer, R.L., Further Characterization and Multifiltration Treatment of Shuttle Humidity Condensate, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 951685, presented at 25th International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Diego, July 10-13, 1995.

Colombo, G.V., Sauer, R.L., and Dunk, D., Paper No. 95-LS-133, Commercialization of the Space Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, presented at AIAA Life Sciences and Space Medicine Conference '95, Houston, April 3-5, 1995.

Akse, J.R., and Atwater, J.E., Advanced Catalytic Methods for the Destruction of Environmental Contaminants, Paper No. 95-LS-70, presented at AIAA Life Sciences and Space Medicine Conference '95, Houston, April 3-5, 1995.


1994

Atwater, J.E., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Sauer, R.L., and Schultz, J.R., A Multiplexed Four Channel On-Line Iodine Monitor, Instrum. Sci. Technol., 22, 217-229, 1994.
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Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., Thompson, J.O., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., A Breadboard Electrochemical Water Recovery System for Producing Potable Water from Composite Wastewater Generated in Enclosed Habitats, in Water Purification by Photocatalytic, Photochemical, and Electrochemical Processes, Rose, T.L., Conway, B.E., Murphy, O.J., and Rudd, E.J, Eds., Electrochemical Society, 1994.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., DeHart, J., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Fiber-Optic Chemiluminescent Biosensors for Monitoring Aqueous Alcohols and Other Water Quality Parameters, Final Report, Contract No. NAS9-19021, Johnson Space Center, June, 1994.

Atwater, J.E., Akse, J.R., and DeHart, J., Oceanographic CO2 Sensor, Final Report, Grant No. DE-FG03-93ER81641/A000, U.S. Department of Energy, March 1994.

Michalek, W.F., Steady State Composite Water Multifiltration Test Results, presented at 2nd International Conference on Life Support and Biosphere Sciences, Huntsville, Alabama, February 1994.

Atwater, J.E., Reagentless Chemiluminescent Biosensor for the Determination of Ethanol in Water, presented NASA Environmental Sensors Workshop, Houston, September 22-23, 1994.

Akse, J.R., In-Flight Ammonia Monitor, presented at Environmental Sensors Workshop, Center for Advanced Space Studies, Houston, September 22-23, 1994.

Atwater, J.E., Reagentless Chemiluminescent Biosensor for the Determination of Ethanol in Water, presented at Environmental Sensors Workshop, Center for Advanced Space Studies, Houston, September 22-23, 1994.


1993

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., Schussel, L.J., and Verostko, C.E., Development and Fabrication of a Breadboard Electrochemical Water Recovery System, SAE Trans J. Aerospace, 102, (1), 513-529, 1993.
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DeHart, J., and Atwater, J.E., PCWQM Solid Phase Module Development Program: Phase II. Life Test Results, Final Report, Contract No. GY5573-SC1.028, Astro International Corporation, October 1993.

Thompson, J.O., and Akse, J.R., Destruction of Problematic Airborne Contaminants by Hydrogen Reduction using a Catalytically Active, Regenerable Sorbent (CARS), Final Report Contract NAS2-13714, Prepared for Ames Research Center, July 1993.

Atwater, J.E., Garmon, F., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Microwave Sterilizable Access Port, Final Report NASA Contract NAS9-18863, 1993.

Casellini, L.M., Lunsford, T.D., Streech, N.D., and Wheeler, R.R., Jr., Single Phase Space Laundry, Final Report, Contract NAS9-18362, Johnson Space Center, Houston, January 1993.

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., Schussel, L.J., Thompson, J.O., and Wheeler, R.R, Electrochemical Water Recovery Process for Treatment of Urine and Other Biological Waste Streams, Final Report Contract NAS9-18528, Prepared for Johnson Space Center, June 1993.

Colombo, G.V., Putnam, D.F., Lunsford, T.D., Streech, N.D., Wheeler, R.R., Jr., and Reimers, H., Single Phase Laundry System Development, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 93092, presented at 23rd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Colorado Springs, July 1993.

Garmon, F., Michalek, W.F., and Noto, F., Sterilization of Unibed Multifiltration Media by Gamma Irradiation, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 932045, presented at 23rd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Colorado Springs, July 1993.

Atwater, J.E., Wheeler, R.R., Sauer, R.L., and Schultz, J.R., Advanced Development of the Regenerative Microbial Check Valve, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 932175, presented 23rd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Colorado Springs, July 1993.
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Jeffers, E.L., Atwater, J.E., and DeHart, J., New Technologies for On-Line Water Quality Monitoring, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 932181, presented 23rd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Colorado Springs, July 1993.
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Jeffers, E.L., Dougherty, D.R., Paxton, T.A., and Atwater, J.E., An On-Line Water Quality Monitor for Space Station Freedom, Paper No. 79c, presented at AIChE Spring National Meeting, Houston, March 1993.
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1992

Atwater, J.E., Wheeler, R.R., Olivadoti, J.T., Flanagan, D.T. and Sauer, R.L.,Regenerable Microbial Check Valve: Life Cycle Tests Results, SAE Trans. J. Aerospace, 101, 1098, 1992.
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Akse, J.R., Thompson, J., Scott, B., Jolly, C., and Carter, D.L., Catalytic Oxidation for Treatment of ECLSS & PMMS Waste Streams, SAE Trans., J. Aerospace, 101, 910 - 925, 1992.

Atwater, J.E., and Wheeler, R.R., Regenerable Biocide Delivery Unit, Phase II Final Report NASA Contract NAS9-18361 1992.

Akse, J.R., Atwater, J.E., and Thompson, J.O., Inflight Ammonia Monitor, Phase I Final Report NASA Contract NAS9-18683, Prepared for Johnson Space Center, July 1992.

Webb, B.J., Advanced Thermal Management Systems for Lunar and Mars Mission Needs, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 921363, presented at 22nd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Seattle, July 1992.

Atwater, J.E., Wheeler, R.R., Olivadoti, J.T., and Sauer, R.L., Chemistry and Kinetics of I2 Loss in Urine Distillate and Humidity Condensate, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 921314, presented at 22nd International Conference on Environmental Systems, Seattle, July 1992.
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Akse, J.R., Catalytic Methods using Molecular Oxygen for Treatment of PMMS & ECLSS Waste Streams, Final Report Contract NAS8-38490, Prepared for Marshall Space Flight Center, April 1992.


1991

Atwater, J.E., and Holtsnider, J.T., Airborne Trace Organic Contaminant Removal Using Thermally Regenerable Multi-Media Layered Sorbents, SAE Trans. J. Aerospace, 100, 1726, 1991.
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Akse, J.R. and Jolly, C.D., Catalytic Oxidation for Treatment of ECLSS & PMMS Waste Streams, in Regenerative Life Support Systems and Processes, Behren, A., MacElroy, R.D., and Reysa, R.P.,Eds., Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1991.

Putnam, D.F., Michalek, W.F., and Van Pelt, T., Space Station Hygiene Water Reclamation by Multifiltration, p. 189 - 194, in: Sauer, R.L., and Bagdigian, R.M., (Eds.), Spacecraft Water Quality: Maintenance and Monitoring, SP-874, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1991.

Jolly, C.D., Schussel, L.J., and Carter, L., Advanced Development of Immobilized Enzyme Reactors, p. 109 - 117 In: Behrend, A.F., MacElroy, R.D., and Reysa, R.P., (Eds.), Regenerative Life Support: Systems & Processes, SP-873, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1991.

Colombo, G.V., Jolly, C.D., and Sauer, R.L., Regenerable Biocide Delivery Unit, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 911406, presented 21st International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, July 1991.

Jeffers, E.L., and Jolly, C.D., Development of the Process Control Water Quality Monitor for Space Station Freedom, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 911432, presented at 21st Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, July 1991.

Garmon F.C., and Ames, R.K., Thermal Pretreatment of Waste Hygiene Water, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 911554, presented 21st International Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, CA, July 1991.

Jolly, C.D., and Jeffers, E.L., Ultrapure Water Total Organic Carbon Analyzer - Advanced Component Development, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 911436, presented at 21st Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, July 1991.


1990

Ames, R.K., Space Station Air Evaporation Multifiltration Wastewater Reclamation Systems, Final Report, Contract NAS8-36425, Prepared for Marshall Space Flight Center, August 1990.

Akse, J.R., Electrochemical Water Recovery Process for Direct Removal of Impurities From Urine and Other Waste Streams, Phase I Final Report NASA Contract NAS9-18336, Prepared for Johnson Space Center, July 1990.

Atwater, J.E., and Holtsnider, J.T., Thermally Regenerable Odor and Toxin Cartridge, Phase I Final Report NASA Contract NAS9 - 18337, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, July 1990.

Jolly, C.D., and DeHart, J., A Reagentless Separator for Removal of Inorganic Carbon from Solution, Final Report Contract NAS8-38460, Prepared for: Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, June 1990.


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